مقایسه سمیت گوارشی عصاره های کرفس (Apium graveolens) و علف داسی (Falcaria vulgaris) با حشره کش Bt علیه بید سیب‌زمینی، Phthorimaea operculella )

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.


در این بررسی اثرات کشندگی و زیستی عصاره­ های هگزانی، اتیل­استاتی و متانولی گیاهان کرفس (Apium graveolens) و علف­ داسی (Falcaria vulgaris) از تیره چتریان با حشره ­کش Bt علیه لاروهای سن اول بید سیب­ زمینی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفت. اندام­ های هوایی گیاهان پس از خشک شدن در سایه با روش خیساندن در حلال­ های اشاره شده، عصاره­ گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که طی 24 ساعت، سمیت عصاره اتیل­استاتی کرفس و علف­داسی به­ترتیب با مقادیر LC50 برابر با 21/0 و 38/0 میلی­ گرم بر لیتر به­ طور معنی­ داری از بقیه عصاره­ ها و حتی Bt (84/1 میلی ­گرم بر لیتر) بیشتر بود. تاثیر کشندگی عصاره­ های هگزانی و اتیل­استاتی هر دو گیاه حتی طی 48 و 72 ساعت نیز بیشتر از Bt بود. با وجود تاثیر کمتر، عصاره­ های متانولی هر دو گیاه بیشترین میزان شیب خط دز- اثر را داشتند. بیشترین میزان پتانسیل نسبی محاسبه شده 76/69 برابر بود که در مقایسه سمیت عصاره اتیل­استاتی کرفس با Bt به­ دست آمد و نشان­ دهنده قدرت کشندگی بسیار بالای این عصاره در مقایسه با Bt بود. طبق نتایج، عصاره اتیل­استاتی هر دو گیاه در مقایسه با سایر عصاره ­ها روی آنزیم استیل ­کولین استراز لاروهای سن اول اثر مهارکنندگی قابل توجهی داشتند به­ طوری که در غلظت LC70، فعالیت این آنزیم را بین 70-60 درصد مهار کردند. درصد ظهور حشرات کامل تحت تاثیر غلظتLC70  عصاره ­های اتیل­استاتی هر دو گیاه بین 68 الی80 درصد کاهش یافت. طول دوره نشو و نمایی لاروی نیز در اثر استفاده از عصاره­ های اتیل­استاتی و متانولی هر دو گیاه در مقایسه با شاهد به ­طور متوسط هشت روز افزایش یافت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing oral toxicity of Apium graveolens and Falcaria vulgaris extracts with Bt against Phthorimaea operculella

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akram Hatami
  • Davoud Mohammadi
  • Naser Eivazian Kary
Department of Plant Protection, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz-Iran.
چکیده [English]

In this study, toxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Apium graveolens and Falcaria vulgaris were compared with the microbial insecticide Bt against 1st instars of Phthorimaea operculella. The aerial parts of plants dried in shadow, and were extracted using the above mentioned solvents via maceration method. The results revealed that after 24 hours’ exposure, ethyl acetate extracts of both plants were significantly more toxic than other extracts with LC50 values of 0.21 and 0.38 mg/l respectively. These extracts in addition with hexane extracts also were more toxic than Bt after 48 and 72 hours. The dose-response line slopes of methanol extracts of both plants were more than other agents otherwise less toxic than them. The best relative potency calculated as 69.76 fold in comparing toxicity of Bt with ethyl acetate extract of A. graveolens which indicates the toxicant potential of this extract against PTM larvae. According to the results, Ethyl acetate extracts of both plants showed more AchE inhibitory activity in comparing with other extracts and 60-70% inhibition recorded by LC70 concentration of these extracts. Adults emergence reduced by 68-80% in LC70 concentration of ethyl acetate extracts of both plants. Life span of PTM larvae which treated with methanol and ethyl acetate extract of both plants, increased by 8 days in comparing with controls.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: AChE Inhibitor
  • Antifeedant Effects
  • Botanical Insecticide
  • Life Span
  • Relative Potency
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