عنوان مقاله [English]
Population density of safflower pests and their natural enemies were studied in 14 selected fields, in main cultivation regions for spring and summer safflower of the province, using different sampling techniques, such as insitu counts, sweeping and rearing of adult insects, and considering plant phonology. In total 23 species of pests and 9 species of natural enemies were collected, which the most important ones were as follows.
A) Pests feeding bolls: Acanthiophilus helianthi, Chaetorellia carthami (Dip., Tephritidae); Larinus flavescens, L. liliputanus (Col., Curculionidae); Oxycarenus palens, O. hyalipennis (Hem., Lygaeidae)
Species 1 to 4 are feeding inside the bolls and species 5 and 6 feeding outside the bolls. The pests, except C. carthami were distributed in different regions of the province. The highest infestation percentage of bolls to A. helianthi, Larinus spp. and Oxycarenus spp. were in the regions of Isfahan (15.9), Aran va Bidgol (3.5) and Isfahan (12).
B) Pests feeding on other parts of the plant: Uroleucon compositae (Hem., Aphididae); Neoaliturus fenestratus (Hem., Cicadellidae); Chromatomyia horticola (Dip., Agromyzidae)
The pests were distributed in different regions of the province. The highest infestation to these pests were in the regions of Ardestan (300 per 10 cm of terminal branch), Isfahan (18 per 100 sweeping net) and Ardestan (11.2 per 10 1 m2 square).
c) Natural enemies of the pests: Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Hym., Torymidae); Bracon hebetor (Hym., Braconidae); Pachyneuron concolor (Hym., Peteromalidae),Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hym., Braconidae); Pachyneuron concolor (Hym., Pteromalidae); Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia variegate (Col., Coccinellidae)
Species 1 to 3 are parasitoids of safflower shoot fly, species 4 and 5 are parasitoids of the aphids and species 6 and 7 are coccinelid predators of the aphids. The highest population density of three groups were in the regions of Isfahan (20 per 100 bolls), Ardestan (3.5 per 100 bolls) and Ardestan (16 per 100 sweeping net).