Effectiveness of Resistance Genes to Stripe Rust and Virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici During two Years Monitoring in Ardabil

Document Type : Research Paper


Horticulture Crops Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Ardabil, Iran.


Stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the world. This rust disease represents a constant threat to wheat production in several countries in Central and Western Asia (CWA). A wide range of virulent yellow rust pathotypes is evolving in this region causing the breakdown of widely utilized sources of resistance in wheat. Hence, the knowledge of effective resistance genes in the region will enable breeders to target those useful genes in their breeding programs. In order to determine of effective resistance genes in Ardabil, northwest of Iran, virulence patterns of wheat yellow rust were studied from 2015 to 2016 under the field conditions by planting of differential sets and isogenic lines. Seedling reaction was also evaluated under field conditions in 2010. Results showed that yellow rust resistance genes Yr3V, Yr3a, Yr4a, Yr4, Yr5, Yr10, Yr15,Yr16, YrCV, YrSD, YrND were effective and the race-nonspecific resistance genes YrA3, YrA4, Yr18 and Yr29 and genes in cultivars; Parula and Pavon 76 were partial effective during the study period. Virulence was observed for genotypes having resistance genes Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, Yr17, Yr20, Yr21,Yr22, Yr23, Yr24, Yr25, Yr26, Yr27, YrSU, and YrA, and therefore, they were ineffective. Cluster analysis of genotypes based on the seedling and adult plant reactions, showed considerable diversity among the wheat cultivars/lines studied. The Genes found effective against yellow rust under natural conditions may be deployed singly or in combinations with durable resistance genes to develop high yield resistant wheat cultivars in wheat growing areas that yellow rust races have the same virulence pattern to the prevalent race/s of Ardabil.


Afshari F, 2008. Prevalent pathotypes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 10: 67-78.
Afshari F, 2012. Inheritance of resistance to stripe rust in a group of advanced wheat lines. Final report of research project. Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. 8 p. (in Farsi with English Summary)
Afshari F, 2013a. Determination of Number of Resistance Genes to Stem Rust Disease (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), Race Ug99 in Two Wheat Cultivars.. Agricultural Biotechnology 12: 27-33. (in Farsi with English Summary).
Afshari F, 2013b. Race analysis of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Iran. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 46: 1785-1796.
Afzal SN,  Haque MI, Ahmedani MS, Bashir S and Rattu AR,  2007. Assessment of yield losses caused by Puccinia striiformis triggering stripe rust in the most common wheat varieties. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39: 2127-2134.
Ali S, Shah SJA, Khalil IH, Rahman H, Maqbool K and Ullah W, 2009. Partial resistance to yellow rust in introduced winter wheat germplasm at the north of Pakistan. Australian Journal of Crop Science 3: 37-43.
Broers L, HM, Cuesta-Subias X and Lopez-Atilano RM, 1996. Field assessment of quantitative resistance to yellow rust in ten spring bread wheat cultivars. Euphytica 90: 9-16.
Bux H, Ashraf M, Chen XM and Mumtaz AS, 2011. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 10: 5489-5495.
Chen SS, Chen GY, Yang C, Wei YM, Wu WX, He YJ, Liu YX, Li W, Pu ZE, Lan XJ and Zheng YL, 2013. Identification and apping of a stripe rust resistance gene in spring wheat germplasm HRMSN-81 from CIMMYT. Crop and Pasture Science 64: 1-8.
Chen XM, 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) on wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 27: 314-337.
Chen XM, Moore M, Milus EA, Long DL, Line RF, Marshall D and Jackson L, 2002. Wheat stripe rust epidemics and races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in the United States in 2000. Plant Disease 86: 39-46.
de Vallavieille-Pope C, Ali S, Leconte M, Enjalbert J, Delos M and Rouzet J, 2012. Virulence dynamics and regional structuring of Puccinia striformis f. sp. tritici in France between 1984 and 2009. Plant Disease 96: 131-140.
de Vallavieille-Pope C, Huber L, Leconte M and Goyeau H, 1995. Comparative effects of temperature and interrupted wet periods on germination, penetration, and infection of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis on wheat seedlings. Phytopathology 85: 409-415.
Herrera-Foessel SA, Lagudah ES, Huerta-Espino J, Hayden MJ, Bariana HS, Singh D and Singh RP, 2011. New slow-rusting leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr67 and Yr46 in wheat are pleiotropic or closely linked. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 122: 239-49.
Holtz MD, Kumar K, Zantinge JL and Xi K, 2013. Virulence phenotypes of Puccinia striiformis in Alberta from 2009-2011. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 35: 241-250.
Hovmøller MS, 2001. Disease severity and pathothype dynamics of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Denmark. Plant Pathology 50: 181-189.
Hovmøller MS, Sørense CK, Walter S and Justesen AF, 2011. Diversity of Puccinia striiformis on Cereals and Grasses. Annual  Review of Phytopathology 49: 197-217.
Hovmøller MS, Walter S, Bayles RA, Hubbard A, Flath K, Sommerfeldt N, Leconte M, Czembor P, Rodriguez-Algaba J, Thach T, Hansen JG, Lassen P, Justsen AF, Ali S and de Vallavieille-Pope C, 2016. Replacement of the European wheat yellow rust population by new races from the centre  of diversity in the near-Himalayan region. Plant Pathology 65: 402-411.
 Jin Y, Singh RP, Ward RW, Wanyera R, Kinyua M, Njau P, Fetch T, Pretorius ZA and Yahyaoui A, 2007. Characterization of seedling infection types and adult plant infection responses of monogenic  Sr gene lines to race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Disease 91:1096-1099.
Johnson R, Stubbs R, Fuchs E and Chamberlain N, 1972. Nomenclature for physiologic races of Puccinia striiformis infecting wheat. Transaction British Mycological Society 58: 475-480.
Kumar K, Holtz M D, Xi K and Turkington TK , 2012. Virulence of Puccinia striiformis on whaet and barley in central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 34: 551-561.
Lan C, Rosewarne GM, Singh RP, Herrer-Foessel SA, Huerta-Espino J, Basnet BR, Zhang Y and Yang E, 2014. QTL characterization of resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in the spring wheat line Francolin 1. Molecular Breeding 34: 789-803.
Line R, and Qayoum  A, 1992. Virulence, aggressiveness, evolution, and distribution of races of Puccinia striiformis (the cause of stripe rust of wheat) in North America, 1968-87. USDA-ARS Tech. Bull.788. 44 pp.
Line RF, 2002. Stripe rust of wheat and barley in North America: A retrospective historical review. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40: 75-118.
Ma H and Singh RP, 1996a. Contribution of adult plant resistance gene Yr18 in protecting wheat from yellow rust. Plant Disease 80: 66-69.
Ma H and Singh RP, 1996b. Expression of adult resistance to stripe rust at different growth stages of wheat. Plant Disease 80: 375-379.
McIntosh RA and Brown GN, 1997. Anticipatory breeding for resistance to rust diseases in wheat. Annual Review of Phytopathology 35: 311-326.
McIntosh RA, Dubcovsk J, Rogres WJ, Morris C, Appels R and Xia XC, 2013. Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. http://www.maswheat.ucdavis/edu/CGSW/ 2013-2014 supplement.
McIntosh RA, Dubcovsky J, Rogers WJ, Morris CF, Appels R and Xia XC, 2010. Catalogue of gene symbols. KUMUGI integrated Wheat Science Database. Avaiable from: http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/wheat/komugi/genes/symbolClassList.jsp.
McIntosh RA, Wellings CR and Park RF, 1995. Wheat Rusts: An Atlas of Resistance Genes. CSIRO, Australia, 200 pp.
Ochoa JB, Danial DL and Paucar B, 2007. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador. Euphytica 153: 287.
Park RF and Wellings CR, 1992. Pathogenic specialization of wheat rusts in Australia and New Zealand in 1988 and 1989. Australasian Plant Pathology 21: 61-69.
Peterson RF, Campbell AB and Hannah AE, 1948. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity of leaves and stems of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research 26: 496-500.
Roelfs AP, Singh RP, Saari EE, 1992. Rust diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of diseases Management.  CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F. 81 pp.
Rosewarne GM, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, William HM, Bouchet S, Cloutier S, McFadden H and and Lagudah ES, 2006. Leaf tip necrosis, molecular markers and beta1-proteasome subunits associated with the slow rusting resistance genes Lr46/Yr29. Theoretical Applied Genetics 112: 500-508.
Safavi SA and Malihipour A, 2018. Effective and ineffective resistance genes and reaction of candidate wheat lines to stem rust in Ardabil. Journal of Crop Protection 7: 415-427
Safavi SA,  Afshari F  and Yazdansepas A, 2013. Effective and ineffective resistance genes to wheat yellow rust during six years monitoring in Ardabil. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection  46: 774-780.
Safavi SA, Afshari F, Arzanlou M and Narmani A, 2017. First report of hybridization between two formae speciales Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici  in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology 99: 800. 
Safavi SA, Babai -Ahari A, Afshari F and Arzanlou M, 2014. Virulence genes and pathotypes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, causing yellow rust on barley in some areas of Iran. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal  30: 733-760.
Shah SJA, Hussain S, Ahmad M, Ullah F, Ali I and Ibrahim M, 2011. Using leaf tip necrosis as a phenotypic marker to predict the presence of durable rust resistance gene pair Lr34/Yr18 in wheat. Journal of General Plant Protection 77: 174-177.
Sharma S, Louwers JM, Karki CB and Snijders CHA, 1995. Postulation of resistance genes to yellow rust in wild emmer wheat derivatives and advanced wheat lines from Nepal. Euphytica 81: 271-277.
Sharma-Poudyal D, Chen XM, Wan AM, Zhan GM, Kang ZS, Cao SQ, Jin SL, Morgounov A, Akin B, Mert Z, Shah SJA, Bux H, Ashraf M, Sharma RC, Madariaga R, Puri KD, Wellings C, Xi KQ, Wanyera R, Manninger K, Ganzález MI, Koyda M, Sanin S and Patzek LJ, 2013. Virulence characterization of international collections of the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Plant Disease 97: 379-386.
Singh RP,  Huerta-Espino J,  Bhavani S, Herrera-Foessel SA,  Singh D, Singh PK, Velu G,  Mason RE, Jin,  Y,  Njau  P and  Crossa J, 2011. Race non-specific resistance to rust diseases in CIMMYT spring wheats. Euphytica 179: 175–186.
Singh RP, 1992. Association between gene Lr34 for leaf rust resistance and leaf tip necrosis in wheat. Crop Science 32: 874-878.
Singh RP, Burnett PA, Albarran M and Rajaram S, 1993. Bdv1: a gene for tolerance to barley dwarf virus in bread wheat. Crop Science 33: 231-234.
Singh RP, Hodson DP, Jin Y, Lagudah ES, Ayliffe MA, Bhavani S, Rouse MN, Pretorius ZA, Szabo LJ, Huerta-Espino J, Basnet BR, Lan C and Hovmøller MS, 2015. Emergence and spread of new races of wheat stem rust fungus: Continued threat to food security and prospects of genetic control. Phytopathology 105: 872-884.
 Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J and William HM, 2005. Genetics and breeding for durable resistance to leaf and stripe rusts in wheat. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 29: 121-127.
Singh RP, Nelson JC and Sorrells ME, 2000. Mapping Yr28 and other genes for resistance to stripe rust in wheat. Crop Science 40: 1148-1155.
Stubbs RW, Prescott JM, Saari EE and Dubin HJ, 1986. Cereal Disease Methodology Manual.  CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F. 46 pp.
Su H, Cornner RL, Graf RJ and Kuzyk AD, 2003. Virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, cause of stripe rust on wheat, in western Canada from 1984 to 2002. Canadian Journal oh Plant Pathology 25: 312-319.
Sui XX, Wang MN and Chen XM, 2009. Molecular mapping of a stripe rust resistance gene in spring wheat cultivar Zak. Phytopathology 99: 1209-1215.
Torabi M, Madoukhi V, Nazari K,  Afshari F, Forootan AR, Ramai MA, Golzar H and Kashani AS, 1995. Effectiveness of wheat yellow rust resistance genes in different parts of Iran. Cereal Rusts and Powdery Mildews Bulletin 23: 9-12.
Wan AM and Chen XM, 2012. Virulence, frequency, and distribution of races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei identified in the United States in 2008 and 2009. Plant Disease 96: 67-74.
Wellings CR and McIntosh RA, 1990. Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Australia: pathogenic changes during the first 10 years. Plant Pathology 39: 316-325.
Wellings CR, 2007. Puccinia striiformis in Australia: A review of the incursion, evolution and adaptation of stripe rust in the period 1979-2006. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 58: 567-575.
Wellings CR, 2011. Global status of strip rust: a review of historical and current threats. Euphytica 179: 129-141.
Xi K, Turkington T k, Helm JH, Briggs KG, Tewari JP, Ferguson T and Kharbanda PD, 2003. Distribution of pathotypes of Rhynchosporium secalis and cultivar reaction on barley in Alberta. Plant Disease 87: 391-396.
Yahyaoui  AH,  Hakim MS, El-Naimi M and Rbeiz N, 2002. Evolution of physiologic races and virulences of Puccinia striformis on wheat in Syria and Lebanon. Plant Disease 86: 499-504.
Yahyaoui AH, 2006. Monitoring stripe rust the CAUCASUS, central, west and North Africa (CWANA). In: Proceedings of the third regional yellow rust conference, 8-11 June, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
 Yahyaoui AH, Hakim MS, Nazari K, Torabi M and Wellings CR, 2001. Yellow rust (P. striformis f. sp. tritici) in central and western Asia. In: Proceedings of the First regional yellow rust conference, 8-14 May, Karaj, Iran.
Zadoks JC, 1961. Yellow rust of wheat, studies of epidemiology and physiologic specialization. Netherlands Journal of Plant Plathology 61: 69-256.
Zakeri A, Afshari F, Rajaee S, Yassaie M, Nikzad AR and Hassani F, 2014. Inheritance of resistance to stripe rust in several commercial cultivars and selected elite genotypes of wheat from Fars province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology50: 163-174, (in Farsi with English Summary).